英検の英作文にはGive three reasons to support your answerと条件が提示されており、指示通りにしなければ減点される可能性が高いですが、今回はあえてFirst, Second, Thirdといった書き方はせずに書いていこうと思います。
Does Japan need a stronger military capability ?
Japan has lived at peace for 75 years by not becoming involved in international conflicts. But now, with new threats in the East Asia region, it is becoming difficult to remain uninvolved. To some degree, Japan must shoulder responsibility for its defense.
In Middle East conflicts, Japan has supported western military efforts financially and with support activities. But in conflicts on the Korea peninsular and in the South sea, the military threat is more direct and Japan's response readiness must be direct, also, even if this means fighting.
But having admitted this, Japan must never get into a position where it can easily be drawn into a war. Displaying military force does not cause an opponent to back down. As we see in Korea, the response and the threat simply become greater. Since the war, Japan has acquired skills of talking with many partner counties. To defuce a conflict, it is necessary to listen to the positions of all interested parties and find solutions agreeable to all.
This can not be achieved by a country which tries primarily to impress its neighbors with force of arms. In the near future, it is quite likely that Japan will be reforming its constitution, including article 9, which does not permit war as a means of defense. If this reform goes through, it will be extremely important not to change other countries' perception of Japan as fundamentally a country of peace. Even if military force is permitted, Japan's first effort must always be to talk with other countries in sincere goodwill and prevent conflicts from occurring.